Laserinterferometric vibrometer – precise, non-contact, flexible

Laserinterferometric vibrometer, based on a Michelson interferometer

Mechanically coupled sensors have traditionally been used to measure vibrations. However, the general, continuing trend toward miniaturization is placing entirely new demands on measuring systems that have to measure the motion of objects through a wide frequency range and down to sub-nanometer resolution. This is where laserinterferometric vibrometers of SIOS Messtechnik GmbH are used for the contactless, reaction-free measurement of macroscopic and microscopic objects at frequencies from 0 to 5 MHz and resolutions in the subnanometer range. These systems are ideally suitable for applications in which the vibrations of hard-to-reach objects have to be analyzed.

Sensor head of laser vibrometer for precise vibration measurements
Series LSV-NG laserinterferometric vibrometer

The design of a laserinterferometric vibrometer is based on that of a Michelson interferometer, in which a beam of coherent light is split into two partial optical beams: a reference beam and a measuring beam. The reference beam has a fixed length. The measuring beam is focused on the surface to be measured, its length changes as a result of the motion of the object measured. After the measuring beam has been reflected from the object measured, the two returning partial beams interfere with one another. Their phase difference is proportional to the displacement of the object measured, and is thus the measured variable. This measurement can also be traced back to international length standards because the laser frequency serves as a linear scale.

Optimized vibrometer for optically rough surfaces

Laserinterferometric vibrometers are interferometers that have been optimized for measuring optically rough surfaces. Their most important feature, which distinguishes them from other length measuring interferometers, is that they have a lens that focuses the measuring beam on the measuring location. Reflection from an optically rough surface creates a speckle pattern. The sensor head is designed to ensure a good signal-to-noise ratio, even when such a speckle pattern occurs. However, the focusing of the measuring beam limits the measuring range to a few mm as a function of the reflectivity of the surface. However, this is not usually a problem in vibration measurement because the vibration amplitudes measured are usually smaller. Normal displacement measurements can also be made in the available measuring range.

Helium-neon lasers ((He-Ne laser) are used as the light source for length and vibration measurement because their characteristics, such as coherence and frequency stability, are crucial for metrology. The measuring head in series LSV-NG vibrometers is coupled via fiber-optic cable in order to keep the head relatively small and free from thermal radiation. The reference mirror in the sensor head can be modulated in order to simplify calibration and improve performance. The vibrometers are available in two versions: with fixed focal length lens and with zoom objective to focus the measuring beam. The second version enables the distance between measuring head and measuring point to be freely selected between 24 cm and 2.5 meters. This allows a great deal of flexibility in the measuring set-up, so the measuring instrument can be used for a range of different applications.

Design of the electronic evaluation unit 

The He-Ne laser and the electronics for processing the interferometer signals received from the measuring head are housed in a 19 inch evaluation unit. The signals are processed and the reference mirror and the variable input amplifier are controlled by multiple microprocessors and very quickly programmable logic circuits. The evaluation unit has a modular structure, so the measuring system can be adapted flexibly to an application by the addition of various signal processing cards. It is possible to accommodate the evaluation of two sensor heads in one device.

The data capture can be synchronized with external events. This is achieved by using a trigger input with an extremely short delay time. This also enables the phase responses of an object to be measured at a known excitation.

The evaluation unit can be equipped with different interface cards to suit the intended purpose:

The interface card for a maximum of 4 synchronously sampled channels  provides a USB and an RS232 interface for connection to a PC. There is also a trigger input for synchronizing the vibration measurement with an external excitation source. This evaluation card can be used to control both various functions of the vibrometer as well as signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 12.5 MHz (corresponds to a maximum possible signal frequency of 5 MHz) and a maximum data block length of 65535 values. The application programming interface (API) for communicating with this card is available for the user. A DLL, a Matlab library and corresponding VI modules support integration into independent applications.

The parallel interface card makes the demodulated interferometer signal available as a digital, parallel 36-bit word. The resolution (an LSB of this word) corresponds to approximately 5 pm. The parallel 36-bit value is available with a very low latency, and can be read out at a scanning rate of up to 12.5 MHz. This facilitates use of the full possible bandwidth of 5 MHz. In this case, the data block length depends only on the PC evaluation, and is not limited by the hardware. Typical fields of application for this interface are high-resolution frequency analyses of forced vibrations of micro-objects.

Vibration analysis systems often provide analog inputs for the sensors. The analog interface therefore has an analog output for integration into such systems. This enables conventional vibration sensors to be easily replaced by laserinterferometric vibrometers. The dynamic range of the series LSV-NG vibrometer is far greater than the measuring range of conventional sensors, as is the analog resolution achievable with reasonable expenditure. The measuring range mapped at the analog output can therefore be selected in seven stages (± 0.63 µm to ± 2.6 mm) to adapt to different fields of application. This is normally done with a rotary knob on the front panel, but the range can also be switched by suitable software via the PC interface. An additional input for resetting/zero setting the analog signal further simplifies use. All in all, the analog interface card offers 16-bit resolution with a maximum output rate of 10 MHz.

Vibration measurement results with LSV-NG
Vibration measurement results with LSV-NG

Although the various interfaces available with the series LSV-NG laserinterferometric vibrometer can be integrated into almost every measuring system, experience has shown that most of the applications involve stand-alone operation with PC software. The INFAS-Vibro software controls the vibrometer via the USB or RS232 interface or via a DIO card from National Instruments (PCIe-6535) used with the high-speed parallel interface of the vibrometer. The software enables vibration signals to be displayed, saved and preprocessed. Recording the raw signals enables the measurements to be analyzed offline without restriction. A configurable export in ASCII format data enables both raw and preprocessed signals to be further processed. For integration into independent applications, INFAS-Vibro can be controlled by a simple protocol via TCP-IP. An automation of longer measuring sequences can be done by the built-in simple scripting language.

Analyzing and measuring mechanical vibrations without contact

Series LSV-NG laserinterferometric vibrometers can be used in all fields of application in which mechanical vibrations have to be analyzed and measured without contact. Its main advantages in comparison to other vibration measurement methods are its contactless and thus reaction-free mode of operation, the large measuring range with a distance resolution of few picometers in the time range  and, of course, the frequency range from 0 Hz to maximum 5 MHz. The vibration spectra, natural frequencies and modes of vibration can also be determined. Multicoordinate measurements and differential measurements can be made with the aid of multiple systems.

Vibrometer measures into a vacuum chamber
Simple measurements made in high vacuum by placing the non-contact measuring vibrometer outside the vacuum chamber

A special version of the series LSV-NG vibrometer which can work in vacuum is possible, but technically very complex. However, it is often possible to see the object to be measured through a window in the vacuum chamber, in which case the measurement can be made through the window by an externally placed measuring head. This makes it very easy to measure objects lying in a vacuum. By focusing the measuring beam, measurements on glass surfaces or through the glass are possible.

 Conclusion: laserinterferometric vibrometer for contactless measurement of object

The laserinterferometric vibrometer is a valuable tool for all applications in which precise, non-contact measurement of object motion is required. The contactless mode of operation provides a means of quickly analyzing objects in different positions without any mechanical influence by the sensor. The system is characterized by high precision and resolution, and a very wide frequency range. The adaptable measuring range facilitated by the zoom objective, the diverse interfaces of the evaluation electronics as well as the comprehensive software support make the series LSV-NG vibrometer an important measuring instrument in production, quality assurance, and research and development.

Compact calibration interferometer up to 6 m

Calibration interferometers for measuring of straightness, angle and  position

Two calibration interferometers were developed for measuring lengths up to 6 m especially for narrow spaces. The high-precision straightness measurement makes them also suitable for the alignment of machine components.

Calibration interferometers are used, wherever highly accurate detection of rotational and translational guidance deviations of linear positioning axes, machine tools and coordinate measuring machines is required. In addition to the high measurement resolution and linearity achievable, the traceability to the metre specification is a decisive advantage of the interferometric measurement method. This is ensured by the frequency connection of the laser source used as a benchmark.

Calibration interferometer SP 5000 C5 2D, compared to the proven SP 15000 C5 system

The high-precision requirements of a system can only be achieved if the existing deviations are known. These can be documented, for example, in the form of acceptance reports. Nevertheless, what is much more important is the fact that the accuracy can be increased by a compensation of the existing deviations – be it linear axis, coordinate measuring machine or machine tool.

As with all interferometers of SIOS Messtechnik GmbH, the basic concept of the calibration interferometers presented here is the use of a fibre-coupled sensor that avoids any heat generation at the measurement site. The measuring reflectors are completely passive, which means they are electrically and magnetically neutral. Another important advantage is the simultaneous acquisition of several measured variables, a principle that SIOS has been following for more than 10 years, since multicomponent measurements allow a mutual assignment (also random proportions) of guidance deviations and also drastically reduce the required measuring times.

The SP 15000 C5 laser Interferometer has already proven itself on the market as a system that records the linear position up to a distance of 50 m, the pitch and yaw angle as well as a straightness component by laser interferometry in a single measurement process. Special advantages of the system are the long range in the high angular resolution as well as the large measuring ranges for the angle and straightness measurement. This and the integrated alignment aids make system alignment child’s play.

However, in a number of applications, the space available in the machine is limited, or the permissible mass of the measuring reflector is limited due to the system design or measurement task (dynamic analysis). In addition, the attachment of the components of the measuring system can be difficult especially in machine tools.

Since the required measuring range is less than 6 m in many cases, two new calibration interferometers with a compact sensor head and a compact measuring reflector for measuring lengths up to 6 m have been developed on the basis of the tried-and-tested SP 15000 C5.

The position resolution and the resolution of the interferometric straightness measurement remain the same as with the SP 15000 C5, the angular resolution is very high at 0.001 arc seconds. Since the systems are to be used even in narrow spaces, focus was on easy handling of the compact system components. Thus, appropriate alignment aids are also included here.

Calibration interferometer with interferometric straightness measurement

Compact sensor head and measuring reflector of the calibration interferometer SP 5000 C5

With the new SP 5000 C5 calibration interferometers, all measured variables are recorded by interferometric method. The set-up and functioning are analogous to the large SP 15000 C5. The significantly more compact sensor head detects the position, the pitch and yaw angles as well as the horizontal and vertical straightness.

With dimensions of 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm and a weight of 240 g, the measuring reflector used is small and light.

The straightness components are measured in two passes without realignment of the system. The measurement resolution of the interferometric length measurement is 5 pm over a measuring range of up to 6 m. The system is characterised by very high angular and straightness measuring ranges and accuracies.

Calibration interferometer with 2D straightness measurement

The SP 5000 C5 2D calibration interferometers (Figure 2) are designed to further simplify handling and reduce measuring times. The straightness mirror is eliminated, so that the calibration is made easier and functionality is significantly improved. The compact, fully passive measuring reflector allows simultaneous measurement of position, pitch and yaw angle as well as straightness components in a single pass. Due to the absolute, micrometre-accurate straightness measurement, the SP 5000 C5 2D is also ideal for the alignment of machine components.

High-performance software solutions for standardised machine acceptance, volumetric correction of machine tools for all common machine control systems, dynamic component analysis and measuring system-supported alignment of machine components exist for all measuring systems.

Use of C5 and C5 2D series multicomponent interferometers significantly reduces the time required for acceptance inspections, calibrations, system analyses and correction range adjustments. This allows cost reduction, while increasing accuracy.

Characterization of microstructures

MEMS – characterization by laser interferometric systems

Traditional measuring systems reach their limits when they have to characterize microstructures. One solution is to use a laser vibrometer together with a technical microscope and the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine from SIOS Messtechnik, Ilmenau. This set-up enables motions and surfaces of objects to be measured to a resolution of 0.1 nanometers.

Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are devices or machines consisting of both electrical and mechanical components which work together as a system. Their measurements typically lie in the micrometer range. Examples of micro-electromechanical systems are: AFM cantilevers, pressure sensors, acceleration sensors, printheads in inkjet printers, mechanical image stabilizers in digital cameras, and sensor chips for use in pharmacy, biology and chemistry.
In order to ensure high quality standards, comprehensive characterization is essential throughout the entire development and production processes. This involves determining a number of parameters. These include dynamic characteristic values, such as resonance frequencies of vibrating structures and their modes of vibration, as well as static variables, such as the topography of a surface and values derived from it, such as structure heights and depths, deflections of membranes and roughness values.
As a result of continuing technical development, ever smaller structure widths are also establishing themselves in the microengineering field. This is where traditionally used measuring systems, such as tactile profilometers, reach their limits. They cannot guarantee the required location resolution in the submicrometer range. Moreover, the pressure of the probe tip may damage or destroy the object measured.
This is where laserinterferometric measuring processes offer a solution. For example, a laser vibrometer from SIOS Messtechnik GmbH, Ilmenau, used in conjunction with a technical microscope can measure dynamic characteristics precisely and without contact. The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine together with various scanning systems can determine the topography of such a system with extreme precision.

Vibration analysis of microstructures

Laserinterferometric processes are suitable for measuring vibrations because they guarantee high precision, and the measurement results can be traced back to the international length standard.
The nano vibration analyzer NA works without contact, and consists of a laserinterferometric vibrometer together with a technical microscope. it is used for the non-contact vibration analysis of MEMS and microstructures.

The nano-vibration analyzer consists of a laserinterferometric vibrometer and a technical microscope.
The software enables surface vibration to be visualized in three-dimensions.

The heart of the vibrometer is a Michelson interferometer. The optical-fiber coupling allows the use of a relatively small sensor, which is free from thermal effects of the laser. Used in conjunction a technical microscope, it forms a high-performance set-up for measuring the lengths and vibrations of MEMS, micro-objects and cantilevers.
According to the manufacturer, this device is characterized by a distance resolution of 5 pm and a frequency measuring range from 0 to 5 MHz. Interchangeable objectives enable the laser spot diameter and the working distance to the object to be varied. For example, the laser spot diameter of a 50x objective is < 2 μm. A positioning table with a 50 mm x 50 mm traversing range enables an object to be scanned. The object measured is observed by an integrated USB camera.
Special software enables the script-controlled scanning of the object measured, and also provides the possibility of spectral analysis and averaging of the measurement data. The velocity and acceleration of the movement of the vibration can be calculated, and the surface vibration displayed in 3D.

Analysis of the surface topography

The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine NMM-1 is an all-purpose device for analyzing the surface topography of microstructures and MEMS.

The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine enables topographical analysis of microstructures and micro-electromechanical systems.

The high resolution of 0.1 nm in a measuring range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm together with the option of integrating various scanning systems enable 2D and 3D measurements to be made over a very large measuring range.

The precision of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine is based on the arrangement of the three laser interferometers for position measurement. The three measuring beams meet at a point at which the scanning system also has its measuring point. This maintains the Abbe comparator principle in all three measuring axes. The scanning system serves as a zero point indicator within the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine. This maintains the Abbe comparator principle throughout the measurement. Optical and tactile scanning systems each have different characteristics and fields of application. Therefore it is important to select the best scanning system for each particular measuring task. All the scanning systems used have high reproducibility, and can be exchanged and mounted with the aid of a simple adapter on the metrological frame of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine. The analog interface of the machine is open for the use of other, newer scanning systems. The following scanning systems are currently integrated into the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine:

  • Laser focus sensor
  • Atomic force microscope
  • White-light interferometer
  • 3D microsensor

These enable the machine to be used for diverse applications, such as positioning, manipulating, processing and measuring objects in fields such as microelectronics, micromechanics, optics and microsystem engineering.

Application examples of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine: a) Hemispherical lens, b) Step height standard, c) Microlens array, d) Flatness standard

Measuring uncertainties in the subnanometer range can be achieved. The measuring range of these high resolution measuring systems can be extended when used in conjunction with a scanning probe microscope. The nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine is thus an all-purpose device for 2D and 3D measurement of MEMS and micro-objects.